What are the problems in cassava production? (2023)

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What are the problems of cassava production?

Other challenges are long maturation duration, low and unstable dry matter and starch contents, high cyanogenic levels, poor cooking qualities, cassava bacterial blight and root rot in forested areas.

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What is the production system of cassava?

Cassava is cultivated in virtually all agro-ecological zones because of its ability to thrive in areas with rainfall between 508 and 1524 mm and in mean annual temperatures between 17 and 30° C. The cassava plant is a shrub of about 2.5 m in height with edible tubers of about 1m in length.

(Raymond Elamah)
What are two reasons why the cassava root is processed?

Traditionally, cassava is processed before consumption. Processing is necessary for several reasons. First, it serves as a means of removing or reducing the potentially toxic cyanogenic glucosides present in fresh cassava. Second, it serves as a means of preservation.

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How do I write a business plan for cassava production?

A cassava farming business plan should include a detailed analysis of the production process, cost of production, marketing and sales strategies, financial projections, and a risk management plan. Identify the target market and develop a value-added product plan to increase revenue.

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(Dr. Eric Berg DC)
What is the main disease of cassava?

The most important Cassava Diseases

The two major cassava diseases common to cassava crops in Nigeria are cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CMSD).

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(Olugbenga Adetitun)
What are the wastes from cassava?

Three main types of residues are generated during the industrial processing of cassava: peels, solids, and wastewater. These wastes are poor in protein content, but their residues are very rich in carbohydrate and are generated in large amounts during the production of 'garri' and cassava flour from the tubers.

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How long does cassava production take?

Cassava needs approximately maximum 9-12 months to mature [1, 2, 3]. This depends on the variety. Early-maturing varieties are harvested 6-7 months after planting, while late-maturing varieties can be harvested after 12 months.

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Where is cassava most produced?

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) production is vital to the economy of Nigeria as the country is the world's largest producer of the commodity.

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Why is cassava processing important?

Most of the cassava produced is processed to improve quality and reduce marketing costs and hence make cassava competitive with food grains in the market. Farmers therefore select cassava genotypes for postharvest attributes.

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What causes cassava spoilage?

The primary driver of cassava's short shelf life is the physiology of the root itself. If left unprocessed, cassava spoils in 24-72 hours after harvest due to a process referred to as post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD)1. Other factors can also shorten shelf life.

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What causes root rot in cassava?

Cassava root rot disease is caused by a complex of soil-borne pathogens and has high economic impacts because it directly affects the tuberous roots, which are the main commercial product.

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What are the five ways cassava products can be processed?

The process of cassava starch can be divided into washing, crushing, sieving, dewatering, drying, and packaging.

What are the problems in cassava production? (2023)
How profitable is cassava?

Cassava farming is profitable if done the right way. The Returns on Investment (ROI) on cassava farming is 50% – 300% depending on the yield and the season. The prices of cassava are usually high at some years. The prices of cassava also have the peak time and the off peak time every year.

Is cassava processing profitable?

The benefit-cost ratio was 2.15; thus, cassava processing into chips is considered profitable and viable.

Who is the main producer of cassava?

Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava, while Thailand is the largest exporter of cassava starch. Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter.

What is cassava toxic called?

Cassava toxicity. The main toxic principle which occurs in varying amounts in all parts of the cassava plant is a chemical compound called linamarin (Nartey, 1981). It often coexists with its methyl homologue called methyl-linamarin or lotaustralin.

What toxic agent is found in cassava?

LINAMARIN - THE TOXIC COMPOUND OF CASSAVA: According to Cooke (6), linamarin and lotaustralin, are the two different cyanogenic glucosides in cassava plant. Roots and leaves contain the highest amount of linamarin (8,14).

What virus attacks the cassava plant?

The viruses are members of the family Geminiviridae and the genus Begomovirus. The first report of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) was from East Africa in 1894. Since then, epidemics have occurred throughout the African continent, resulting in great economic loss and devastating famine.

What are four products of cassava?

It is cultivated throughout the tropical world for its tuberous roots, from which cassava flour, breads, tapioca, a laundry starch, and an alcoholic beverage are derived.

How long does it take for cassava to decompose?

It's biodegradable and compostable

Cassava bags decompose in around 180 days after you discard them and dissolve easily in hot water. At around nine months of decomposition, cassava bags turn into carbon dioxide, water, and biomass. Aside from that, cassava bags are also compostable.

What are the environmental impacts of cassava processing?

The processing of some of these products requires large amounts of water and produces equally large amounts of waste water. This water may be high in organic constituents and cyanide, which can pollute the ground water or the lakes, streams or rivers into which it is released.

What is the lifespan of a cassava plant?

The usual life span is 15 to 24 months depending on the cultivar, climate and soil conditions, but later tubers become fibrous and woody. Some quick growing cultivars can be harvested in 6-7 months so you can plant and harvest them twice a year. However, for good yields you must harvest after 9 to 12 months.

Does cassava need a lot of water to grow?

Cassava is drought resistant but water well, and it will produce more roots of better quality. Do not allow the soil to stay soaked, though, as this may cause the roots to rot. Insufficient water supply can lead to the reduction of crop yield and product value. Cassava is grown as a rainfed crop between ± 30° latitude.

What season is cassava harvested?

Harvesting of cassava can be done throughout the year when the roots reach maturity. In regions with seasonal rains, harvesting is usually done in the dry season, during the dormant period of the plant; where rain prevails all year round, cassava is harvested throughout the year.

Where does the US import cassava from?

United States imports most of its Cassava from Peru, United States and is the largest importer of Cassava in the World.

What country consumes the most cassava?

Global Cassava Trends in 2022

Since 2017, there has been a 0.7% drop in demand. In 2021, Nigeria was the top consumer of cassava with 25.2 million metric tons.

Where is cassava grown in us?

You will only be able to grow the cassava plant as a perennial started in spring if you live in a warm region like Florida, where it is most similar to the tropical and subtropical climates it is grown in its native habitats.

Why does cassava have to be carefully prepared before eating?

Cassava may be dangerous if consumed raw, in large amounts, or if prepared improperly. Raw cassava contains chemicals called cyanogenic glycosides. If eaten, these can release cyanide into your body ( 19 , 20 ).

What is the economic importance of cassava production?

Cassava is important, not just as a food crop but even more so as a major source of cash income for producing households. As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households, in comparison with other staples, contributing positively to poverty alleviation.

What are three products which cassava can be processed into?

The most common processed products of cassava are cassava starch, cassava flour and cassava chips. Tapioca is a starch extracted from the cassava root through a process of washing and pulping. The most common use of starch is to add to puddings or mix with fruit. Cassava flour comes from ground cassava root.

Why does cassava turn yellow?

In East Africa the most common are Cassava Brown Streak Virus (CBSV), which leads to root rot and Cassava Mosaic Virus (CMV) which shows symptoms of yellowing and wrinkled leaves but it is no longer a major challenge.

What diseases can cassava leaves cure?

Help Treat Rheumatic Diseases

Osteoporosis, arthritis, spondylitis and lupus are some examples. Cassava leaves are rich in magnesium. In fact, a diet high in magnesium leads to lowered blood pressure levels that reduces the chances of rheumatic diseases throughout life (1).

What causes cassava blight?

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis is the pathogen that causes bacterial blight of cassava. Originally discovered in Brazil in 1912, the disease has followed the cultivation of cassava across the world. Among diseases which afflict cassava worldwide, bacterial blight causes the largest losses in terms of yield.

What is the #1 cause of root rot?

There are two causes for root rot, but the main cause is poorly drained or overwatered soils. These soggy conditions prevent roots from absorbing all the oxygen they require to live. As the oxygen-starved roots die and decay, their rot can spread to healthier roots, even if the soggy conditions have been rectified.

What is the disease of cassava leaves?

Fungal diseases
Blight leaf spotCercospora vicosae
Brown leaf spotCercosporidium henningsii Mycosphaerella henningsii [teleomorph]
Cassava ashOidium manihotis
Concentric ring leaf spotPhyllosticta manihotae P. manihoticola
12 more rows

What is the best method of preserving cassava?

A number of studies have shown that cassava roots treated with an appropriate fungicide and kept in an airtight plastic bag or a plastic film wrap can be stored for two to three weeks.

What must be done before cassava is safe for consumption?

It is essential to peel cassava and never eat it raw. It contains dangerous levels of cyanide unless a person cooks it thoroughly before eating it. Foods that people can make using cassava include: bread, which can contain cassava flour only or both cassava and wheat flour.

What are the byproducts of cassava processing?


Waste materials from cassava processing are divided into four categories: peels, fibers, starch and waste water (Ubalua, 2007).

What are the disadvantages of cassava farming?

Cassava production is usually faced with myriad of problems ranging from pests and diseases (cassava mosaic disease, cassava bacterial blight, cassava anthracnose disease, cassava bud necrosis, root rots, mealybugs, green mite etc), weather related problems, poor soil, land dilapidation, damage by livestock, danger ...

Who is the largest importer of cassava in the world?

Top importers of Manioc (cassava) starch in 2022
  • China - 80% of the world imports ($2.2 billion)
  • USA - 4.74% ($130 million)
  • Philippines - 3.11% ($85 million)
  • Japan - 2.61% ($71 million)
  • Singapore - 1.51% ($41 million)
  • Netherlands - 0.791% ($21 million)

What are the disadvantages of growing cassava?

Continuous production under these conditions can lead to soil nutrient depletion. On sloping land, cassava cultivation can also cause severe erosion if the crop is not properly managed.

What are the problems with cassava production?

Other challenges are long maturation duration, low and unstable dry matter and starch contents, high cyanogenic levels, poor cooking qualities, cassava bacterial blight and root rot in forested areas.

How much does a cassava processing plant cost?

For cassava flour processing machines and cassava starch processing machines, we can do from 2 tons of cassava tubers input per hour to 40 tons of cassava input per hour, mainly a fully automatic processing line. Machines cost is from 190,000usd to millions of dollars. They are popular in the commercial market.

What are the two ways of processing cassava?

Processing of cassava for food involves combinations of fermentation, drying, and cooking. Fermentation is an important method common in most processings. While there are many fermentation techniques for cassava, they can be broadly categorized into solid-state fermentation and submerged fermentation.

Who eats the most cassava?

The highest levels of cassava per capita consumption was registered in Ghana (X kg/year), followed by Thailand (X kg/year), Nigeria (X kg/year), Brazil (X kg/year) and Indonesia (X kg/year), while the average per capita consumption of cassava was estimated at X kg/year in 2015.

Is cassava grown in the United States?

Cassava has a significant number of varieties, ranging in taste from bitter to sweet, but the root crop is not widely grown in the United States. Given its importance to millions elsewhere in the world, there are concerted efforts to develop new varietals adaptable to changing climes.

Is cassava in demand?

The demand for processed cassava is significantly being driven by the increasing use in the food industry. Cassava flour is widely being used in bakery products, like biscuits, cookies, and bread. The products are also used in the production of confectioneries, including gums, sweets, among others.

How does cassava processing affect the environment?

The processing of some of these products requires large amounts of water and produces equally large amounts of waste water. This water may be high in organic constituents and cyanide, which can pollute the ground water or the lakes, streams or rivers into which it is released.

Is there a shortage of cassava?

(VAN) The high price of cassava raw materials has caused many factories to end the 2022-2023 crop year early. Cassava starch is expected to be in short supply until the 2023-2024 crop.

What is the effect of cassava waste on the environment?

By its nature, cassava processing for starch extraction produces large amounts of effluent high in organic content. If untreated this may be displayed in the form of stagnant effluent ponds from which strong odors emanate. Other forms of processing, despite not requiring water, generate very visible dust waste.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of cassava?

Cassava is an essential source of energy and contains nutrients, such as protein, calcium, and fiber. But, people should not eat it raw, as there is a risk of toxicity due to naturally occurring forms of cyanide. Raw cassava contains cyanide, which is toxic to ingest, so it is vital to prepare it correctly.

What are the problems in the use of cassava as animal feed?

Cassava contains a cyanogenic glucoside, linamarin, which on hydrolysis yields hydrocyanic acid which is toxic to animals. In small doses, cyanide is detoxified to thiocyanate by means of the enzyme rhodanase, making use of methionine as the sulphur donor.

What are the advantages of cassava production?

The leaves are relatively rich in protein and can be consumed. Cassava can be stored in the ground for several seasons, thereby serving as a reserve food when other crops fail. Cassava is also increasingly used as an animal feed and in the manufacture of different industrial products.

What is the future of cassava?

The future of cassava production

Cassava demand is estimated to grow at 2.0% annually for food and 1.6% per year for feed in developing countries, while total cassava production is projected to reach 168 million tons by 2020 based on the current production rate (Table 1).

Which country has the most cassava?

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) production is vital to the economy of Nigeria as the country is the world's largest producer of the commodity.

Does cassava reduce soil fertility?

Nutrient removal in the crop harvest. Cassava grows relatively well on poor soils, which may result in a further reduction in soil fertility (Table 6).

Is cassava peel a waste?


Solid wastes from cassava include the leaves, stems and peels; these wastes constitute more than 18% of the cassava plant (Ezekiel et al., 2012).

How do you reduce the toxicity of cassava?

Crushing and sun-drying cassava roots made into flour removes 96% to 99% of total cyanogens, whereas soaking and sun-drying into lafun or fufu, or soaking and fermenting and roasting into gari or farina, removes about 98% of cyanogens.


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